According to a report published by the Turkish Journalists' Union (TGS) titled "Journalism in Turkey: Perception and Profile Survey,” 42.8% of the journalists said they had been subjected to censorship because of the political reasons or employer relations.
Censorship usually takes the form of not publishing, removing or changing news items. The rate of censorship is higher among female journalists and journalists under the age of 35 compared to other groups.
Approximately a quarter of journalists (25.3%) stated that they frequently or constantly practiced self-censorship in their news, while 36.9% of journalists stated that they never practiced self-censorship.
One out of every four journalists consider changing their profession as they face many difficulties in the process of reporting such as being sued, having access to their news blocked, being physically attacked, and having their digital materials confiscated. Female journalists face more obstacles than male journalists.
Among the journalists who participated in the survey, 36.2% stated that they have been subjected to mobbing at least once in their life. Female journalists, as well as young journalists and those with a university degree, particularly those working in metropolitan cities, are more prone to report instances of mobbing.
Most journalists in Turkey also receive low salaries, work 45 hours or more per week, and are not entitled to annual leave, according to the survey.
Commenting on the findings of the research, deputy chair of the European Federation of Journalists (EFJ) Mustafa Kuleli said that even if political repression ends, good journalism cannot be practiced in Turkey unless journalists work under better conditions.